Heretical medical studies, papers and articles.
( Selected and commented
by Stan Bleszynski, 3-Oct-2004, updated 1-Sep-2006 )
a-2 Group eating most saturated fats = halted progression of coronary disease, most carbs = fastest progression!
a-1 Japanese group consumming most animal fats had almost 3-times lower stroke risk!
a0 Halved HDL cholesterol level tripples the stroke risk!
a1 Radioactive carbon experiments show that lipids are synthesized in arterial wall out of glucose, not from blood cholesterol!
a2 Eating Lots of Carbs May Raise Cancer Risk
a3 Two studies implicating high carbohydrate diet and increased cancer risk.
a4 Research studies link high blood insulin levels with increased heart disease risk.
a5 Patients in J-LIT trial with low cholesterol (<160mg/dl) experience 6 time higher risk of cardiac death than those with high cholesterol (>200mg/dl)!
a6 Study showing that taking four times higher dose of simvastatin lowered cholesterol to a significantly higher degree yet resulted in roughly the same number of cardiac events, - proving that cardiac events cannot be caused by serum cholesterol!
a7 World Health Organisation's MONICA study shows lack of correlation between countries with high or low % people with high cholesterol and death rate from coronary heart disease.
a8 Group of medical scientists and doctors oppose the current mainstream medical doctrine of cholesterol lowering
a9 Consumption of corn syrup correlates with the prevalence of diabetes t2, while consumption of protein and fat does not.
a10 Two Canadian studies report correlation: - less prostate cancers with higher consumption of saturated fats; - more prostate cancers associated with higher consumption of polyunsaturated vegetable oils.
a11 Interesting paper "The origins of agriculture - a biological perspective and a new hypothesis" by Greg Wadley & Angus Martin
a12 Studies on profesional athletic performance more bad news for promoters of high carb low fat diets.
a13 Recommended reading: "A Review of Diet, Fat, and Cholesterol Research: 25 Points." by Janeen Hunt
a14 Dr. Walter Willett's letter to AJCN: lowfat highcarb diet worse for people who exercize than for those who don't!
a15 Protective role of saturated fats against heart damage caused by unsaturated vegetable oils.
a16 Article in "The Independent" warns of the growing mental disease risk in the population, due to lack of omega-3.
a17 Framingham - the largest, longest and probably most expensive cholesterol study shows that low cholesterol does NOT lower mortality neither for women of all ages, nor for men above 50-ty.
a18 Skin cancer and suncreeen lotions
a19 Statin drugs cancel benefits of exercising in atherosclerosis.
a20 Study shows eating more protein and less fiber improves Ca absorption.
a21 New studies show more dietary animal protein improves bones - shattering a common medical myth.
a22 Twice as many kidney patients survived after 4 years on a medium protein restricted carb diet, then a control group of kidney patients on a normally recommended low protein high carb diet.
a23 Women who drank 1+ sugared soda can a day got 85% more often type 2 diabetes.
a24 The startling rise in diabetes is perfectly mirrored by our mounting consumption of refined carbohydrates"
a25 Top medical executive, former President of the American College of Cardiology, a former President of the American College of Chest Physicians and the present editor of The American Heart Hospital Journal, says "Low fat high carb diet ... can no longer be defended"
a26 Centenarian study points towards a possible role of HDL in longevity.
a27 Only 4 out of 1127 intervewed centenarians were vegetarians.
a28 Nutrient found in egg yolks and liver essential for brain development in fetal stage and in infancy!
a29 European study showed that patients with coronary heart disease in low cholesterol group (<160mg/dl) had more than double the total death rate (mostly by cancer), and had the same cardiac death rate as the high cholesterol group.
a30 The Benefits
of High Cholesterol.
#-2 Group eating most saturated fats = halted progression of coronary disease, most carbs = fastest progression.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol.
80, No. 5, 1175-1184, November 2004
Title: "Dietary fats, carbohydrate, and progression
of coronary atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women",
Authors: Dariush Mozaffarian, Eric B Rimm, and David M Herrington
Background: The influence of diet on atherosclerotic progression is not well established, particularly in postmenopausal women, in whom risk factors for progression may differ from those for men.
Objective: The objective was to investigate associations between dietary macronutrients and progression of coronary atherosclerosis among postmenopausal women.
Design: Quantitative coronary angiography was performed at baseline and after a mean follow-up of 3.1 y in 2243 coronary segments in 235 postmenopausal women with established coronary heart disease. Usual dietary intake was assessed at baseline.
Results: The mean total fat intake was 25 +/- 6% of energy. In multivariate analyses, a higher saturated fat intake was associated with a smaller decline in mean minimal coronary diameter (P = 0.001) and less progression of coronary stenosis (P = 0.002) during follow-up. Compared with a 0.22-mm decline in the lowest quartile of intake, there was a 0.10-mm decline in the second quartile (P = 0.002), a 0.07-mm decline in the third quartile (P = 0.002), and no decline in the fourth quartile (P < 0.001); P for trend = 0.001. This inverse association was more pronounced among women with lower monounsaturated fat (P for interaction0.04) and higher carbohydrate (P for interaction = 0.004) intakes and possibly lower total fat intake (P for interaction = 0.09). Carbohydrate intake was positively associated with atherosclerotic progression (P = 0.001), particularly when the glycemic index was high. Polyunsaturated fat intake was positively associated with progression when replacing other fats (P = 0.04) but not when replacing carbohydrate or protein. Monounsaturated and total fat intakes were not associated with progression.
Conclusions: In postmenopausal women with relatively low total fat intake, a greater saturated fat intake is associated with less progression of coronary atherosclerosis, whereas carbohydrate intake is associated with a greater progression.
Barry Groves' comments on http://www.second-opinions.co.uk/sat-fat_and_women.html
Quote: A new finding, published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, is that eating saturated fat reduces the progression of cardiovascular disease in post-menopausal women. They call it "The American Paradox". It is the latest in a long line of "paradoxes" French, Greek, Spanish, etc where people in countries that eat lots of fat and saturated fat at that don't get the heart disease that American doctors think they should. How dare these people make a mockery of American hypotheses?
It never ceases to amaze me that, with all the evidence over the last fifty years that saturated fats are NOT unhealthy, American doctors and, it must be admitted, others influenced by American ideas, cannot seem to put two and two together to make four.
#-1 Japanese group consumming most animal fats had almost 3-times lower stroke risk!
American Heart Assoc. journal:
Title: "Animal Protein, Animal Fat, and Cholesterol Intakes and Risk of Cerebral Infarction Mortality in the Adult Health Study",
Catherine Sauvaget, MD; Jun Nagano, MD; Mikiko Hayashi, BA; Michiko Yamada, MD
Results: During the follow-up period, 60 deaths were attributed to cerebral infarction. A high intake of animal fat and cholesterol was significantly associated with a reduced risk of cerebral infarction death. The risk was reduced by 62% (CI, 82% to 18%) for those in the third tertile of animal fat intake, compared with those in the first
tertile, with a significant linear dose-response relationship (P=0.0073). The risk of death from infarction was reduced by 63% (CI, 82% to 22%) in the high cholesterol consumption group, compared with the low consumption group. A significant linear dose?response relationship was observed. Animal protein was not significantly associated with infarction mortality after adjustment for animal fat and cholesterol.
Conclusions: This study suggests that in Japan, where animal product intake is lower than in Western countries, a high consumption of animal fat and cholesterol was associated with a reduced risk of cerebral infarction death."
#0 Halved HDL cholesterol level tripples the stroke risk!
American Heart Assoc. journal:
"High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Risk of Stroke in Japanese Men and Women The Oyabe Study"
Yoshiyuki Soyama, DDS; Katsuyuki Miura, MD, PhD; Yuko Morikawa, MD, PhD; Muneko Nishijo, MD, PhD; Yumiko Nakanishi, MD, PhD; Yuchi Naruse, MD, PhD; Sadanobu Kagamimori, MD, PhD; Hideaki Nakagawa, MD, PhD
Results: During follow-up, 132 participants developed stroke, including 81 ischemic stroke cases. Age-adjusted incidence rates per 10 000 person-years for all stroke in subjects with low HDL-C (<30 mg/dL [0.78 mmol/L]) were 103.4 in men and 49.3 in women, which were remarkably higher than in subjects with high HDL-C (60 mg/dL [1.56 mmol/L]) (26.4 in men and 15.5 in women).
#1 Radioactive carbon experiments show that lipids are synthesized in arterial wall out of glucose, not from blood cholesterol!
INSULIN-STIMULATED LIPOGENESIS IN ARTERIAL TISSUE
IN RELATION TO DIABETES AND ATHEROMA
Stout R.W., The Lancet, page 702, September 28, 1968
Download paper 1 (pdf, 200k)
Intravenous injection of rats with insulin and 14C-labelled substrate containing
either glucose or acetate led to much greater incorporation of
these substances into the aortic lipids than when the substrate alone was injected. Since insulin is known to inhibit tissue-lipase in arterial tissue, excess of circulating
insulin could cause accumulation of fat in the arterial wall by both increasing its deposition and inhibiting its removal. It is suggested that insulin thus plays a major role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.
INSULIN STIMULATION OF CHOLESTEROL SYNTHESIS
BY ARTERIAL TISSUE
Stout R.W., The Lancet, page 467, August 30, 1969
Download paper 2 (pdf, 200k)
Summary: Rats given sodium [14C]-1-acetate and insulin intravenously were killed 1 hour later. Radioactivity levels in cholesterol in aortic tissue were significantly higher than in rats given labelled acetate alone. Levels in serum-cholesterol were not significantly different, nor were aortic-tissue levels when [14C]-4-cholesterol was given with or without insulin. The result suggests that insulin stimulates cholesterol synthesis in the aortic wall.
These studies showed that carbon C14 out of glucose or acetate was incorporated into aorta lipids when additional isulin was injected. C14 from intravenously injected cholesterol was not incorporated into aorta. The experiments strongly indicate that lipids and/or cholesterol found in the arterial walls in arteriosclerosis or in diabetes may be synthesized in-place (in cells) out of glucose or acetate in presence of excessive insulin, rather than being absorbed from blood cholesterol. This would explain why arteriosclerosis is much more likely in diabetes type 2 - due to both glucose and insulin levels being often elevated.
#2 Eating Lots of Carbs May Raise Cancer Risk
By Marilynn Marchione, AP Medical Writer, 6-Aug-2004
"High-carb diets may increase more than just waistlines. New research suggests they might raise the risk of breast cancer. Women in Mexico who ate a lot of carbohydrates were more than twice as likely to get breast cancer than those who ate less starch and sugar, scientists found. "
"Scientists think carbs may increase cancer risk by rapidly raising sugar in the blood, which prompts a surge of insulin to be secreted. This causes cells to divide and leads to higher levels of estrogen in the blood, both of which can encourage cancer.
A study earlier this year suggested that high-carb diets modestly raised the risk of colon cancer. Little research has been done on their effect on breast cancer, and results have been mixed. One study last year found greater risk among young women who ate a lot of sweets, especially sodas and desserts. "
"Those in the top category - who got 62 percent or more of their calories from carbs were 2.22 times more likely to have breast cancer than those in the lowest category, whose carb intake was 52 percent or less of their diet."
Isabelle Romieu, Eduardo Lazcano-Ponce, Luisa Maria Sanchez-Zamorano, Walter Willett, and Mauricio Hernandez-Avila, "Carbohydrates and the Risk of Breast Cancer among Mexican Women", Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2004 13: 1283-1289.
Comment: This is one of the strongest dietary-disease risk correlation factor I have ever seen documented in a study! For every 1% increase in carbohydrate consumption above 52%, the statistical risk of breast (and possibly other cancers) increases by 12% !
#3 Two studies implicating high carbohydrate diet and increased cancer risk.
Bruce, W.R., Wolever, T.M., Giacca, A., "Mechanisms Linking Diet and Colorectal Cancer: The Possible Role of Insulin Resistance," Nutrition and Cancer, 37(1), 2000, pages 19-26.
Another interesting study on cancer:
"High carbohydrate diet implicated in pancreatic cancer"
#4 Research studies link high blood insulin levels with increased heart disease risk.
Lichtenstein, M.J., Yarnell, J.W., Elwood, P.C., et al., "Sex Hormones, Insulin, Lipids and Prevalent Ischemic Heart Disease," American Journal of Epidemiology, 126(4), 1987, pages 647-657.
Pyorala, K., Savolainen, E., Kaukola, S., et al., "Plasma Insulin as Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factor: Relationship to Other Risk Factors and Predictive Value During 9 1/2-Year Follow-Up of the Helsinki Policeman Study Population," Acta Medicina Scandvica. Supplementum., 701, 1985, pages 38-52.
Fontbonne, A., Tchobroutsky, G., Eschwege, E., et al., "Coronary Heart Disease Mortality Risk: Plasma Insulin Level is a More Sensitive Marker Than Hypertension or Abnormal Glucose Tolerance in Overweight Males. The Paris Prospective Study," International Journal of Obesity, 12(6), 1988, pages 557-565.
Despres, J.P., Lamarche, B., Mauriege, P., et al., "Hyperinsulinemia as an Independent Risk Factor for Ischemic Heart Disease," New England Journal of Medicine, 334(15), 1996, pages 952-957.
Comment: high blood insulin level results from consumption of excessive carbohydrates, especially in the presence of medium amount of dietary fat (35-45%, see Kwasniewski "Homo Optimus") . An overview of those studies and discussion can also be found at:
#5 Patients in J-LIT trial with low cholesterol (<160mg/dl) experience 6 time higher risk of cardiac death than those with high cholesterol (>200mg/dl)!
Title: "Large scale cohort study of the
relationship between serum cholesterol concentration and coronary events
with low-dose simvastatin therapy in Japanese patients with hypercholesterolemia."
Matsuzaki M, Kita T, Mabuchi H, Matsuzawa Y, Nakaya N, Oikawa S, Saito Y, Sasaki J, Shimamoto K, Itakura H; J-LIT Study Group. Japan Lipid Intervention Trial.
Circ J. 2002 Dec;66(12):1087-95.
The table below (extracted from the paper) shows that the patients on low doses of simvastatin (5-10mg/d) with very low cholesterol (below 160mg/dl) had 6.2 +/- 3 times higher risk of cardiac deaths than the group with the middle cholesterol levels (200-219mg/dl), on the same dose of simvastatin.
The group with very low cholesterol had also 1.5 times higher risk of cerebrovascular death, 3.2 time higher risk of malignancy death, 2.9 times higher risk of accidents and suicide, and 2.7 times higher risk of death from other causes.
The risk of cardiac
death versus cholesterol level curve had in fact a "bathtub" shape, where
the maximum deaths occured at both ends: at high as well as low cholesterol,
whith the minimum risk occuring in the middle cholesterol level group.
The table below summarizes the result, the first two numbers provide the
cholesterol range in mg/dl (for example 160-179), and the last number in
brackets is the death risk relative to the middle 200-219mg/dl group:
|Cholest. Range (mg/dl)||Rel.risk of cardiac death|
|Below 160||6.2 (+/- 50%)|
|160 179||1.8 (+/- 30%)|
|260 279||4.0 (+/-30)|
|Above 280||11 (+/- 50%)|
#6 Study showing that taking four times higher dose of simvastatin lowered cholesterol to a significantly higher degree yet resulted in roughly the same number of cardiac events, - proving that cardiac events cannot be caused by serum cholesterol!
"Big setback for Merck cholesterol drug. High doses of Zocor provide no benefits in preventing new problems in heart attack patients: study. August 31, 2004: 6:31 AM EDT "
#7 World Health Organisation's MONICA study shows lack of correlation between countries with high or low % people with high cholesterol and death rate from coronary heart disease.
Original article, see:
Title: "Cholesterol And The French Paradox, The Swiss Paradox, The Russian Paradox, The Lithuanian paradox...Etc... " by Dr. Malcolm Kendrick
#8 Group of medical scientists and doctors oppose the current mainstream medical doctrine of cholesterol lowering
Quote: "AUGMENTED PRESS RELEASE
(Original press release)
Concerned Scientists Dispute New Cholesterol-Lowering Guidelines Statin Drug Treatment Carries Great Risk, Few Benefits ."
#9 Consumption of corn syrup correlates with the prevalence of diabetes t2, while consumption of protein and fat does not.
Title: "Increased consumption of refined
carbohydrates and the epidemic of type 2 diabetes in the United States:
an ecologic assessment1,2,3"
Lee S Gross, Li Li, Earl S Ford and Simin Liu
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 79, No. 5, 774-779, May 2004
Quote: "In a multivariate nutrient-density model, in which total energy intake was accounted for, corn syrup was positively associated with the prevalence of type 2 diabetes (ß = 0.0132, P = 0.038). Fiber (ß = 13.86, P < 0.01) was negatively associated with the prevalence of type 2 diabetes. In contrast, protein (P = 0.084) and fat (P = 0.79) were not associated with the prevalence of type 2 diabetes when total energy was controlled for."
#10 Two Canadian studies report correlation: - less prostate cancers with higher consumption of saturated fats; - more prostate cancers associated with higher consumption of polyunsaturated vegetable oils.
1) "Dietary factors and risk of prostate
cancer: a case-control study in Ontario, Canada."
2) "Nutritional factors and prostate cancer:
a case-control study of French Canadians in Montreal, Canada."
Interestingly, a protective effects of fat (negative correlation factor) was alegedly stronger in Quebec than in Ontario, in addition, Quebecers did not exhibit a positive correlation between total caloric intake and prostate cancer.
#11 Interesting paper "The origins of agriculture - a biological perspective and a new hypothesis" by Greg Wadley & Angus Martin
It is the most interesting that it postulates a hypothesis that certain destructive behavioral pathologies of the modern civilisation may have something to do with the addictive properties and neurological effects of certain recently adopted food such as cereals and milk. That is similar to Kwasniewski's hypothesis as outlined in his book "Homo Optimus".
Quote: "Our sympathies therefore lie with the pathological interpretation of exorphins, whereby substances found in cereals and milk are seen as modern dietary abnormalities which may cause schizophrenia, coeliac disease or whatever. But these are serious diseases found in a minority. Can exorphins be having an effect on humankind at large?"
And another interesting article on a similar
"The Worst Mistake in the History of the Human Race" by Jared Diamond,
University of California at Los Angeles Medical School,
Discover Magazine, May 1987,
Quote: "... Now archaeology is demolishing another sacred belief: that human history over the past million years has been a long tale of progress. In particular, recent discoveries suggest that the adoption of agriculture, supposedly our most decisive step toward a better life, was in many ways a catastrophe from which we have never recovered. With agriculture came the gross social and sexual inequality, the disease and despotism, that curse our existence."
#12 Studies on profesional athletic performance more bad news for promoters of high carb low fat diets.
"Effects of high-fat and high-carbohydrate
diets on metabolism and performance in cycling"
"Female Runners Eating a Low-Fat Diet may
Increase Risk of Injury, Limit Energy Supplies, UB Study Suggests"
"Female Soccer Players Perform Best On
A High-Fat Diet, UB Study Finds"
"Trained Runners Perform Better On Diet
Moderately High In Fat Than On High-Carbohydrate, Low-Fat Regimen, Study
"High-Fat Diet Raises ''Good Cholesterol''
In Trained Runners"
"Liberalizing the fat content gives athletes more calories, and it certainly doesn't harm their health, like everyone thought," said John Leddy, M.D.,
"Results showed that HDL levels rose as the amount of fat in the diets increased. There was no change in weight, percent of body fat, heart rate, blood pressure, serum triglycerides, total cholesterol or LDL. The 42-percent-fat diet decreased risk factors for heart disease, while the 16-percent-fat diet increased the risk factors for coronary heart disease by lowering the levels of HDL and the major protein component of HDL. The work was supported by a grant from Mars, Inc."
#13 Recommended reading: "A Review of Diet, Fat, and Cholesterol Research: 25 Points." by Janeen Hunt
Quote: "man's so-called recent ''higher consciousness'' is killing him"
#14 Dr. Walter Willett's letter to AJCN: lowfat highcarb diet worse for people who exercize than for those who don't!
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol.
72, No. 4, 1061-1062, October 2000
© 2000 American Society for Clinical Nutrition
Letter to the Editor:
Reply to AE Hardman by Walter C Willett , Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115
Quote [see Table 1 first]:
"... These data do not provide any support for Gibney's assertion that the effects of a high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet are less adverse in persons who exercise. In fact, in both men and women, the effect of this diet on triacylglycerol was relatively more adverse (ie, a more positive value) in persons who exercised than in those who did not. Similarly, in both sexes the effect of diet on HDL cholesterol was more adverse (ie, a more negative value) in persons who exercised than in those who did not. Importantly, in each case, the most favorable lipid values were in persons who exercised and DID NOT CONSUME THE HIGH-CARBOHYDRATE LOW-FAT DIET"
#15 Protective role of saturated fats against heart damage caused by unsaturated vegetable oils.
"The Great Con-ola", Sally Fallon and Mary G. Enig, PhD
Among many different issues raised:
1) Studies on rats showed that heart muscular lesions are not only caused by erucic acid but also by particular omega-3 fats present in Canola and flaxseed oils, if these fats were the only fats fed to mice.
2) Quote: "According to a 1998 report, mice fed a diet containing monounsaturated fats were more likely to develop atherosclerosis than mice fed a diet containing saturated fat. In fact, the mice fed monounsaturated fats were even more prone to heart disease than those fed polyunsaturated fatty acids."
3) Presence of SATURATED fats in the diet had a protective effect on mice and pigs, against damages caused by vegetable oils described in point (1) above.  
4) Quote: "When saturated fats are added to the diet, the undesirable effects of canola oil are mitigated. Most interesting of all is the fact that many studies show that the problems with canola oil are not related to the content of erucic acid, but more with the high levels of omega-3 fatty acids and low levels of saturated fats."
11. RO Vles and others. Nutritional Evaluation of Low-Erucic-Acid Rapeseed Oils. Toxicological Aspects of Food Safety, Archives of Toxicology, Supplement 1, 1978:23-32
12. HL Trenholm and others. An Evaluation of the Relationship of Deitary Fatty Acids to Incidence of Myocardial Lesions in Male Rats. Canadian Institute of Food Science Technology Journal, October 1979;12(4):189-193
13. JKG Kramer and others. Reduction of Myocardial Necrosis in Male Albino Rats by Manipulation of Dietary Fatty Acid Levels. Lipids, 1982;17(5):372-382.
29. LL Rudel and others. Dietary monounsaturated fatty acids promote aortic atherosclerosis in LDL-receptor-null, human ApoB100-overexpressing transgenic mice. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology, November 1998;18(11):1818-27.
Footnote: when the above article link was posted on Webmd medical message board, the following response was posted by [name widtheld]:
Each time I read an article such as this, which contradicts our highly-esteemed 'gods of nutrition', the more furious I am that so many millions of people have been so completely bamboozled in the area of nutrition and health. But when I attempt to share any of this information with family and friends, the vast majority act as though I have lost my mind. As in, how can you possibly believe that nearly everything we've been taught about nutrition is incorrect? Anyone who dares to contradict what we've been told by the 'experts' is obviously a kook! Even though just looking around at the epidemics of obesity, related illnesses and myriad chronic diseases should be evidence that surely something is very wrong ... Does anyone else experience this frustration?
#16 Article in "The Independent" warns of the growing mental disease risk in the population, due to lack of omega-3.
Quote: "... Changes in British diets are going to lead to an explosion in mental health problems, medical experts said yesterday. They warned of a crisis even bigger than the epidemic of obesity afflicting the UK. They said that most of the increase could probably be blamed on changes in farming and food over the past 20 years, which have led to deficiencies in essential omega-3 fatty acids...."
Comment: the lack of omega-3 is associated with the insufficient consumption of animal fats and excessive intake of vegetable fats. Wide selection of omega-3 fatty acids are aboundant in animal fats and relatively rare or of the wrong kind (too much of alpha-linoleic acid) among food derrived from plants.
#17 Framingham - the largest, longest and probably most expensive cholesterol study shows that low cholesterol does NOT lower mortality neither for women of all ages, nor for men above 50-ty.
See the following papers:
"Drug treatment of hyperlipidemia in women."
Walsh JM, Pignone M.
"Cholesterol and mortality. 30 years of
follow-up from the Framingham study." Anderson KM, Castelli WP, Levy D.
JAMA 1987 Apr 24;257(16):2176-80.
" After age 50 years there is no increased overall mortality with either high or low serum cholesterol levels. There is a direct association between falling cholesterol levels over the first 14 years and mortality over the following 18 years (11% overall and 14% CVD death rate increase per 1 mg/dL per year drop in cholesterol levels)."
#18 Skin cancer and suncreeen lotions
There is a suspicion(1) that excessive usage of sunscreen lotions and creams especially those containing psorialen. Another suspect is the excessive consumption of cancer promoting polyunsaturated vegetable oils (2), especially those rich in linoleic acid such as sunflower, safflower, corn and soya oils.
1) Autier P, et al . Melanoma
and use of sunscreens: an EORTC case-control study in Germany, Belgium
and France. Int J Cancer 1995; 61: 749-55.
Garland CF, et al . Could sunscreens increase melanoma risk? Am J Publ Hlth 1992; 82: 614-15.
Garland CF, et al . Could sunscreens increase melanoma risk? Am J Publ Hlth 1992; 82: 614-15.
Garland CF, et al . Effect of sunscreens on UV radiation-induced enhancement of melanoma growth in mice. J Natl Cancer Inst 1994; 86: 798-801
Dover JS, Arndt KA. Dermatology. JAMA 1994; 271: 1662-63.
Koh HK, Lew RA. Sunscreens and melanoma: implications for prevention. J Natl Cancer Inst 1994; 86: 78-9
2) Mackie BS, Mackie LE. Dietary
polyunsaturated fats. Med J Aust 1988; 149: 449.
Holborow P. Melanoma and polyunsaturated fat; cancer and diet. NZ Med J 1990; 103: 515-6.
Holborow P. Melanoma and fatty acids. NZ J Med 1991; 104: 19.
van Dam R M, et al. Diet and basal cell carcinoma of the skin in a prospective cohort of men. Am J Clin Nutr 2000; 71: 135-141
Since we are in the subject of cancer and oils, there are studies that found correlation between cancer and polyunsaturated fats (see below [3,4,5]) which mention linoleic acid specifically.
Some were using sunflower seeds ) thus we cannot conclude that it is only its oxidised residua or manufacturing process by- products although these may also be contributing. Given insufficient number of direct comparisons (i.e. hot pressed oils versus cold pressed unprocessed fresh veg oils or fresh oil seeds) it is probably prudent to limit them until it's properly researched.
(see http://www.second-opinions.co.uk/fats_and_cancer.html )
3) on using PUFA, general
Newsholme E A. Mechanism for
starvation suppression and refeeding activity of infection. Lancet 1977;
Miller JD, et al. Br Med J 1973; i: 765.
4) on immunosuppressing properties of PUFA (Poly-Unsat. Fatty Acids)
Pearce M L, Dayton S. Incidence
of cancer in men on a diet high in polyunsaturated fat. Lancet 1971; i:
Uldall PR, et al . Lancet 1974; ii: 514.
American Heart Association Monograph, No 25. 1969.
Nauts HC. Cancer Research Institute Monograph No 18. 1984, p 91.
5) on PUFA causing or promoting various cancers:
Mackie BS. Med J Austr 1974;
Kearney R. Promotion and prevention of tumour growth ? effects of endotoxin, inflammation and dietary lipids. Int Clin Nutr Rev 1987; 7: 157.
Wolk A, et al. A Prospective Study of Association of Monounsaturated Fat and Other Types of Fat With Risk of Breast Cancer. Arch Intern Med . 1998; 158: 41-45
#19 Statin drugs cancel benefits of exercising in atherosclerosis.
"Effects of Aerobic Physical Exercise on
Inflammation and Atherosclerosis in Men: The DNASCO Study", Rainer Rauramaa,
Annals Of Internal Medicine, 2004,Volume 140, Issue 12, Pages 1007-1014.
"Conclusions: Aerobic physical exercise did not attenuate progression of atherosclerosis, except in a subgroup of men not taking statins."
#20 Study shows eating more fat and less fiber improves Ca absorption.
"Factors associated with calcium absorption efficiency in pre- and perimenopausal women"
Quote: "Women in the lowest tertile of the ratio of dietary fat to fiber had 19% lower fractional calcium absorption values than did women in the highest tertile of ratio of dietary fat to fiber"
Comment: This study seems to undermine another commonly believed medical dogma that dietary fat is supposed to be "bad" and fiber is supposed to be "healthy".
#21 New studies show more dietary animal protein improves bones - shattering a common medical myth.
"Controlled High Meat Diets Do Not Affect
Calcium Retention or Indices of Bone Status in Healthy Postmenopausal Women"
Zamzam K. et al., J. Nutr. 133:1020-1026, April 2003
"Protein intake: effects on bone mineral density
and the rate of bone loss in elderly women"
Prema B Rapuri et al., American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 77, No. 6, 1517-1525, June 2003
"Effect of Dietary Protein on Bone Loss in
Elderly Men and Women: The Framingham Osteoporosis Study"
Hannan MT, et al., J Bone Miner Res. 2000 Dec;15(12):2504-12
Quote: " ... Lower protein intake was significantly related to bone loss at femoral and spine sites (p < or = 0.04) with effects similar to 10 lb of weight. Persons in the lowest quartile of protein intake showed the greatest bone loss. Similar to the overall protein effect, lower percent animal protein also was significantly related to bone loss at femoral and spine BMD sites (all p < 0.01) but not the radial shaft (p = 0.23). Even after controlling for known confounders including weight loss, women and men with relatively lower protein intake had increased bone loss, suggesting that protein intake is important in maintaining bone or minimizing bone loss in elderly persons. Further, higher intake of animal protein does not appear to affect the skeleton adversely in this elderly population."
"Protein Saves Bone in Elders"
"New Data on Dietary Protein and Bone"
There is a number of medical studies on the subject published recently, that show that higher protein diets lead to better bone markers, thus appear to combat osteoporosis better than the low protein diets.
That seems to destroy another common medical supperstition often brought as a major argument in favor of vegetarianism and against the low carb diets.
This may indicate that
the two main criticisms against the low carb diets: that (a) they were
supposed to be bad for bones and (b) bad for kidneys (see another study
further down) had no scientific substance whatsoever, and were in fact
based on pure myths and false beliefs of some professional medical
#22 Twice as many kidney patients survived after 4 years on a medium protein restricted carb diet, than in a control group of kidney patients on a normally recommended low protein high carb diet.
"A Low-Iron-Available, Polyphenol-Enriched, Carbohydrate-Restricted
Diet to Slow Progression of Diabetic Nephropathy "
Francesco S. Facchini1, and Kami L. Saylor, Diabetes 52:1204-1209, 2003
There is also a discussion and a summary of that paper at:
"The composition of the white meat-based diet was 25-30% protein, 30% fat, 35% carbohydrate, and 5-10% alcohol. A control group of kidney-impaired diabetics consumed a low-protein diet comprised of 10% protein, 25% fat, and 65% carbohydrate - a similar macronutrient profile to that recommended to kidney patients - and to the general population by mainstream health authorities."
"After an average follow-up period of 3.9 years, 39% of the control group patients either died or deteriorated to a point necessitating kidney replacement; in the unrestricted white meat-protein group, the corresponding figure was only 20%." [Note: total population N=191]
#23 Women who drank 1+ sugared soda can a day got type 2 diabetes 85% more often.
Harvard Nurses Study group (chaired by Dr. Walter Willett) is quoted in:
Comment: This is a very high and significant correlation factor! 1 can of soda is about 20-30g of sugar, which is probably up to 13% of daily carbohydrate calories. These figures can therefore be represented in terms of incremental risk of: more than 6% of additional relative diabetes risk (over average) for every 1% of added calories in form of sugary beverages.
#24 The startling rise in diabetes is perfectly mirrored by our mounting consumption of refined carbohydrates"
"...But when Liu broke down the figures into proteins, fats and carbohydrates, a different picture emerged. Neither fat consumption nor protein seem to be the root cause of the problem. Instead, the diabetes rise best matches dropping fibre consumption and escalating consumption of corn syrup, a ubiquitous sweetener in today's processed foods. ... Foods high in refined carbohydrate, the argument goes, send blood sugar soaring, requiring the pancreas to pump out insulin. Over time, the body's tissues become resistant to the excess insulin and pancreatic cells wear out, resulting in diabetes."
"... Liu's analysis also backs the argument that, since the 60s and 70s, advice to the public to cut back on fat has misfired. Some experts say such advice led food manufacturers simply to replace fats with carbohydrates, which ultimately fuelled obesity rather than combating it. The study shows that the amount of corn syrup people ate started rocketing at roughly the time the low-fat health message was being broadcast. "Never before have people eaten so much highly refined carbohydrates and led such a sedentary lifestyle," says Ludwig...."
Why are then diabetic patients recommended to follow a high carb diet a diet high in precisely the very food group that may have CAUSED their diabetes in the first place?
#25 Top medical executive, former President of the American College of Cardiology, a former President of the American College of Chest Physicians and the present editor of The American Heart Hospital Journal, says "Low fat high carb diet ... can no longer be defended"
Sylvan Lee Weinberg, MD, MACC, former President of the American College of Cardiology, a former President of theAmerican College of Chest Physicians and the present editor of The American Heart Hospital Journal, in a paper published in the 4 March edition of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology, stated that low fat high carb dietary recommendations are no longer tenable.
"The Diet-Heart Hypothesis: A Critique"
by Sylvan Lee Weinberg, MD, MACC.
J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004 Mar 3;43(5):731-3.
The low-fat "diet heart hypothesis" has been controversial for nearly 100 years. The low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet, promulgated vigorously by the National Cholesterol Education Program, National Institutes of Health, and American Heart Association since the Lipid Research Clinics-Primary Prevention Program in 1984, and earlier by the U.S. Department of Agriculture food pyramid, may well have played an unintended role in the current epidemics of obesity, lipid abnormalities, type II diabetes, and metabolic syndromes. This diet can no longer be defended by appeal to the authority of prestigious medical organizations or by rejecting clinical experience and a growing medical literature suggesting that the much-maligned low-carbohydrate, high-protein diet may have a salutary effect on the epidemics in question.
Comment: Sylvan Lee Weinberg has apparenty been waiting a very long time before writing those words.
#26 Centenarian study points towards a possible role of HDL in longevity.
Harvard University and two Boston area hospitals have conducted years of painstaking analysis of the genetic material of 137 centenarians or near centenarians and their siblings in search of a longevity gene. One interesting side effect of this study was the fact the study group had extremely high levels of HDL cholesterol. The study was quoted in the Wall Street Journal (August 27, 2001)
Comment: diets high in animal fats and low in carbohydrates increases HDL; diets such as for example vegetarian that are low in fat and high in carbohydrates decrease HDL.
#27 Only 4 out of 1127 intervewed centenarians were vegetarians.
That is highly significant proportion, about 3-30 times less than in the general population (I assume that 1-10% of the total general population in the N.America and Europe are vegetarians). The original article is at:
Note: the title sentence was taken out of Segerberg O. "Living To Be 100". Chas Scribner & Sons, 1982.
#28 Nutrient found in egg yolks and liver essential for brain development in fetal stage and in infancy!
"Nutrient during pregnancy 'super-charges'
12 March 04 NewScientist.com news service
"Taking a nutrient called choline during pregnancy could "super-charge" children's brains for life, suggests a study in rats.
Choline, a member of the vitamin B family, is found in egg yolks, liver and other meats - 'exactly the kind of things people were told not to eat'..."
Another nail in the coffin of the modern nutrition dogma and of the vegetarian movement,
#29 European study showed that patients with coronary heart disease in low cholesterol group (<160mg/dl) had more than double the total death rate (mostly by cancer), and had the same cardiac death rate as the high cholesterol group.
3. The European Heart Journal has published the results of a 3-year study involving 11,500 patients. Researcher Behar and associates found that in the low cholesterol group (total cholesterol below 160mg/dl) the relative risk of death was 2.27 times higher relative to those with high cholesterol. The most common cause of death in the low cholesterol group was cancer while
the risk of cardiac death was the same in both groups. In support of their findings these researchers point out that previous studies found a higher increase in lung cancer when total cholesterol levels were maintained below 170 mg/dl. ... "
Behar, S. Et al. "Low total cholesterol is associated with high total mortality in patients with coronary heart disease." European Heart Journal (1997) 18, 52-59.
#30 The Benefits of High Cholesterol.
By Uffe Ravnskov, MD, PhD
1) ELDERLY MORTALITY IS HIGHER WITH LOW CHOLESTEROL
" Dr. Harlan Krumholz of the Department of Cardiovascular Medicine at Yale University, who reported in 1994 that old people with low cholesterol died twice as often from a heart attack as did old people with a high cholesterol."
"Now consider that more than 90 % of all cardiovascular disease is seen in people above age 60 also and that almost all studies have found that high cholesterol is not a risk factor for women. This means that high cholesterol is only a risk factor for less than 5 % of those who die from a heart attack."
2) HIGH CHOLESTEROL PROTECTS AGAINST BACTERIAL INFECTIONS
"For instance, in 19 large studies of more than 68,000 deaths, reviewed by Professor David R. Jacobs and his co-workers from the Division of Epidemiology at the University of Minnesota, low cholesterol predicted an increased risk of dying from gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases."
"Similar results come from a study of the MRFIT screenees, including more than 300,000 young and middle-aged men, which found that 16 years after the first cholesterol analysis the number of men whose cholesterol was lower than 160 and who had died from AIDS was four times higher than the number of men who had died from AIDS with a cholesterol above 240. "
High cholesterol might promote fungal infections, quote: "In a similar experiment using injections of Candida albicans, a common fungus, Dr. Netea and his team found that mice with familial hypercholesterolemia died more easily than normal mice.
3) HIGH CHOLESTEROL PROTECTS IN CHRONIC HEART FAILURE
"Now to the salient point: to their surprise the researchers found that mortality was higher, not only in the patients with anergy, but also in the patients with the lowest lipid values, including total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol as well as triglycerides.
The latter finding was confirmed by Dr. Rauchhaus, this time in co-operation with researchers at several German and British university hospitals. They found that the risk of dying for patients with chronic heart failure was strongly and inversely associated with total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and also triglycerides; those with high lipid values lived much longer than those with low values.[11,12]"
4) GENETIC LOW CHOLESTEROL IS LETHAL
Quote: "Most children with this syndrome are either stillborn or they die early because of serious malformations of the central nervous system. Those who survive are imbecile, they have extremely low cholesterol and suffer from frequent and severe infections. However, if their diet is supplemented with pure cholesterol or extra eggs, their cholesterol goes up and their bouts of infection become less serious and less frequent."
5) VLDL("TRIGLYCERIDES") PROTECTS AGAINST SEPSIS (BLOOD POISONING)
Quote: " Professor Hobart W. Harris at the Surgical Research Laboratory at San Francisco General Hospital and his team found that solutions rich in triglycerides but with practically no cholesterol were able to protect experimental animals from the toxic effects of endotoxin and they concluded that the high level of triglycerides seen in sepsis is a normal immune response to infection."
1. Krumholz HM and others. Lack
of association between cholesterol and coronary heart disease mortality
and morbidity and all-cause mortality in persons older than 70 years. Journal
of the American Medical Association 272, 1335-1340, 1990.
2. Ravnskov U. High cholesterol may protect against infections and atherosclerosis. Quarterly Journal of Medicine 96, 927-934,2003.
3. Jacobs D and others. Report of the conference on low blood cholesterol: Mortality associations. Circulation 86, 10461060,1992.
7. Neaton JD, Wentworth DN. Low serum cholesterol and risk of death from AIDS. AIDS 11, 929930, 1997.
11. Rauchhaus M, Coats AJ, Anker SD. The endotoxin-lipoprotein hypothesis. Lancet 356, 930933, 2000.
12. Rauchhaus M and others. The relationship between cholesterol and survival in patients with chronic heart failure. Journal ofthe American College of Cardiology 42, 1933-1940, 2003.
14. Elias ER and others. Clinical effects of cholesterol supplementation in six patients with the Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS). American Journal of Medical Genetics 68, 305310, 1997.
21. Harris HW, Gosnell JE, Kumwenda ZL. The lipemia of sepsis: triglyceride-rich lipoproteins as agents of innate immunity. Journal of Endotoxin Research 6, 421-430, 2001.
22. Netea MG and others. Hyperlipoproteinemia enhances susceptibility to acute disseminated Candida albicans infection in low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-deficient mice. Infection and Immunity 65, 2663-2667, 1997.
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